INFLUENCE OF GUT MICROBIAL METABOLISM ON THE BIOCHEMICAL PROFILE OF DIETARY COMPOUNDS
Swann J., Rowland I., Gibson G., Kristiansen K., Scott K., Tuohy K.
Division of Computational and Systems Medicine, Imperial College London, UK
The biotransformation capabilities encoded in the gut microbiome vastly exceed that of the host genome. This includes functions essential for host digestion. As such, the gut microbiota is a key factor in shaping the biochemical profile of the diet and therefore, its impact on host health and disease. Importantly, the gut microbiome is highly host-specific, shaped by a myriad of intrinsic (host genome) and extrinsic (nutrition, lifestyle) host factors, and variation in this population may contribute towards differences in individual responses to the diet. This critical role of the gut microbiota in human metabolism has stimulated research into the identification of the specific microorganisms involved in different processes and a deeper understanding of their metabolic pathways, particularly those associated with metabolism of dietary components. Here, the main gut microorganisms and microbial pathways associated with the metabolism of dietary carbohydrates (to short chain fatty acids and gases), proteins, fats, bile acids, plant polyphenols and vitamins will be discussed. In addition, novel and existing methodologies used to study these diet-gut microbial interactions will also be discussed including mathematical modeling, systems biology approaches, isolated microbes, and enzyme assays. By studying the gut microbial processing of dietary inputs at a higher resolution we will advance our understanding of the relationship between diet and health.
Keywords: Probiotic, Biotransformation, Digestion, Gut microbiota, Diet
Swann J., et al. (2016). Influence of gut microbial metabolism on the biochemical profile of dietary compounds. Conference Proceedings of IPC2016. Paper presented at the International Scientific Conference on Probiotics and Prebiotics, Budapest (p. 72.). IPC2016