Szyc A., Fotschki J., Markiewicz L., Laparra M., Wróblewska B.
Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Department of Immunology and Food Microbiology; Olsztyn, Poland

The composition of the intestinal microbiota has a significant impact on the intestinal homeostasis and ensures the balance between the defense immune function of the mucosa and systemic tolerance. An imbalance can be triggered by food allergy.
Many factors, especially fermented product, reach diet and probiotic supplementation have a significant influence on the microbiota structure. Buttermilk in the properly balanced diet of healthy people provides a rich source of essential proteins, phospholipids and bio-available minerals and vitamins and remains a frequent source of lactic acid bacteria The main aim of study was to determine the effect of diet supplementation with buttermilk beverage fermented with L.bulgaricus- 151 on the mice intestinal microbiota composition of allergic and non-allergic organisms.

The female BALB/c mice at 8 weeks of age, were randomly divided into four groups (n=8/group). Two of groups were intra-peritoneally sensitized with cows’ milk protein (β lactoglobulin, α casein with aluminum adjuvant) to imitate an allergic reaction to milk proteins. One group of animals after sensitization procedure (A) and one of non-sensitized group (B) were fed with standard diet supplemented with fermented L. bulgaricus - 151 buttermilk. The remaining two groups: control-sensitized (C) and control non-sensitized (D) were fed with standard diet with PBS. After 3-week feeding period the mice were sacrificed. Blood, feces and intestine samples were collected. IgE, IgG and cytokines secretion was evaluated by ELISA method. In intestine mucosa the expression (mRNA) immune markers (TNF-α, IL-4, MCP-1 and TLRs) were measured. In caecal digesta the microbiota structure using qPCR method was determine. The experiment was approved by the Ethical Committee (75/2011/N).

The desensitization by oral administration of L.bulgaricus-151 fermented buttermilk caused a significant decrease of total IgE (P=0.012) and antigen specific IgG (P=0.0038) in serum of sensitized group animals. A slight but insignificant increase of total IgE level relatively to the control group was observed in non sensitized animals treated with fermented product. The administered beverage caused the expression reduction of pro-inflammatory biomarkers especially IL-4, MCP-1 and TNF-α (P<0.005) in sensitized group of animals. There were also observed significant increase of TLR-2 and TLR-4 expression (P<0.005) in sensitized group of mice contrary to non-sensitized group that revealed only the TLR-4 expression increase (P=0.037). Fermented buttermilk administration resulted in increase of quantity of intestinal microbiota. Differences in composition were observed in sensitized and non-sensitized groups subjected the supplementation. In sensitized group the abundance increase was observed for Lactobacilli, Bifidobacteria, Enterococci and Atopobium sp. (P<0.05). In non-sensitized group there were also noticed a significant quantity reduction of Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas group and Clostridium coccoides (P<0.05).

This study showed that applied dairy product caused discrepancy in quantitative and qualitative composition of intestinal microbiota in allergic and healthy individuals that is reflected in different secretion pro-inflammatory biomarkers and expression of innate immune responses markers. Different response of the immune system associated with the gut mucosa to the fermented buttermilk confirms the need of personalized nutrition and individual modulating properties assessment of used bacteria strain.

Keywords: Intestinal microbiota, Personalized nutrition, Individual predisposition, Strain-level dependent properties, Allergy, Probiotics

Szyc A., et al. (2016). Impact of L.Bulgaricus-151 fermented buttermilk on intestinal microbiota composition of allergic and non-allergic mice model. Conference Proceedings of IPC2016. Paper presented at the International Scientific Conference on Probiotics and Prebiotics, Budapest (p. 74.). IPC2016

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